Outside Scholarship Opportunities
Check back often for updates. For full details of any scholarship see Dennis.
The AAUW offers scholarships of $5,000 to $18,000 to female med students in M3 or M4 from minority groups including Black/African Americans, Mexican/Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Native Alaskan Amercans and Asian/Pacific Islander Americans.
Application requirements include an online application, a narrative autobiography, career/professional goals, a detailed budget, 3 letters of recommendation (one from your med school dean), official transcripts and a $35 nonrefundable fee.
Deadline: January each year for the following year. Thus, you must apply during M2 or M3.
Minority Scholars Awards
Seven $10,000 scholarships are awarded annually to medical school students who are permanent residents or citizens of the U.S. Eligible students from traditionally underrepresented groups in the medical profession include African American/Black, American Indian, Native Hawaiian, Alaska Native and Hispanic/Latino and must currently be in M1 or M2. Each medical school is invited to submit two nominees.
Deadline: mid-April each year.
Physicians of Tomorrow Scholarships
Up to twelve $10,000 scholarships are awarded to current third-year medical students, who are entering their fourth-year of study and are permanent residents or citizens of the US. The selection of the recipients will be based on academic achievement and financial need. Each medical school may submit one nominee.
Deadline: late May each year.
For both awards the application requirements include a form, a one page personal statement, a letter of recommendation from the medical school dean, a letter of recommendation from a medical school faculty member and a medical school transcript.
Contact Financial Aid if you are interested in being nominated for either award.
Visit www.amafoundation.org/go/amafscholarships to learn more.
To recognize medical students, residents/fellows and new physicians who demonstrate strong, nonclinical leadership skills in advocacy, community service and/or education. Recipients will attend a leadership training program, an awards banquet and the AMA National Advocacy Conference in Washington, DC in March.
Applications available at www.amafoundation.org/go/excellence.
Application deadline: November 17
Seed Grant Research Program
One-year grants up to $2,500 are offered to medical students, residents and fellows to conduct basic science or clinical research projects on Cardiovascular/Pulmonary Diseases, HIV/AIDS, Leukemia and Neoplastic Diseases.
Applications available at www.amafoundation.org/go/seedgrants.
Deadline: December 6.
American Society of Hematology
Two $450 scholarships will be awarded to Latino/Latin UVA graduate students to help with the high costs of textbooks. References to Hispanic/Latino and "students of Latino/Latin American/Iberian descent" are also made in the announcement.
This award follows a nominations process, meaning any member of the UVA SOM (faculty, staff, student leader, fellow student) may nominate a student who is currently in M1, M2 or M3.
Deadline: each year mid-February.
For more information and the scholarship application visit: http://hoosonline.virginia.edu/site/c.bnJzHHNkGkF/b.3857077/k.914D/Scholarship.htm.
This web site includes a list of scholarships for Hispanic/Latino students if you select Scholarships from the menu and then Additional Scholarships from the dropdown menu or visit http://hoosonline.virginia.edu/site/c.bnJzHHNkGkF/b.3857083/k.50F3/Additional_Scholarships.htm.
Chesapeake Medical Society
The Chesapeake Medical Society offers the $1,000 Hubert W. Kuehn Scholarship to students from Chesapeake VA currently enrolled in medical school.
Previous recipients may reapply.
Deadline: March each year.
For more information and the scholarship application, telephone the Society's Executive Director, Ms. Leslie Phelps, at 757 312 6192 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chinese American Medical Society (CAMS)
The CAMS offers the Esther Lim, the Ruth Liu and the American Center for Chinese Medical Sciences scholarships.
Applicants must be first, second or third year students at a U.S. medical school.
Requirements include the completed application, a letter from the dean of students, two letters of recommendation, a personal statement, and a current vitae.
Deadline: April 30 each year.
For more information and the application visit http://chineseamericanmedicalsociety.cloverpad.org/Default.aspx?pageId=1070535
Connecticut Scholarships and Loans
The Connecticut Academy of Family Physicians Endowment Loan Fund offers 2nd, 3rd and 4th year medical students loans that are repaid without interest or not repaid if recipients establish family practices. Deadline: June 1 each year.
The Hartford County Medical Foundation offers scholarships up to $2,000 to medical students from that county. Deadline: June 1 each year.
The Nolan Scholarship is for male medical students from Middlesex County. Deadline: June 1 each year.
The Waterbury Medical Association offers the Wellsford and Mildred Clark Medical Memorial Scholarship of up to $20,000 for 4th year medical students. Deadline: April 30th of your 3rd year.
The Windham County Medical Association offers grants to medical students from that county. Deadline April 15 each year.
For further details visit http://www.ctafp.org/scholarships
Also see Hartford (CT) Foundation for Public Giving lower on this list.
Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowships
One year of full-time clinical research is supported with a $29,000 stipend, free health insurance, financial support to attend a year-end meeting and funds for supplementary research and training.
Applicants must have completed two or more years of medical school in good academic standing by July 1 (when all research programs begin) and may apply to one or more of the 12 schools participating in the clinical research program.
Deadline: January each year.
For details visit http://www.ddcf.org/Programs/Medical-Research/
General Electric/National Medical Fellowships
GE/NMF offers fourth-year medical students clinical/puiblic health electives of two-months duration between Match and graduation weeks in Ghana and Uganda focusing on regional health care issues such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, cancer and infant mortality.
A $5,000 scholarship and funds to cover transportation and living expenses are awarded to those who complete the program.
Application requirements include an application form, a letter of recommendation from the SOM dean, a 500-word statement from the applicant and the applicant's official grade transcript and curriculum vitae.
Applicants must be nominated by the SOM
Program requirements include an individual project, a written project, a presentation, weekly journals and a team project.
Deadline: October 1 each year.
For further details and the application visit: http://www.nmfonline.org/programs-GE.php
Hampton Roads Community Foundation (formerly The Norfolk Foundation)
The HRCF offers four scholarships for medical school students:
Florence L. Smith Medical for long-time Virginia residents attending medical school at Eastern Virginia, the University of Virginia or Virginia Commonwealth.
Victor and Ruth N. Goodman Memorial for students from South Hampton Roads, VA (Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Virginia Beach, Suffolk, Isle of Wight County). studying medicine or other health professions.
Louis I. Jaffe Memorial for graduates of Norfolk State University enrolled in a graduate program at any institution. Applicants must be Virginia residents with priority given to students from Hampton Roads.
Yeonas Memorial - for students of Greek descent from South Hampton Roads.
One general application is used to apply for all scholarships for which the applicant is eligible.
Requirements include the application form, a personal statement, two letters of recommendation, transcripts from high school and college and a statement of family income and resources.
Deadline: each year March 1. Award notifications are sent in May.
For more information visit http://www.hamptonroadscf.org/scholarships/graduateScholarships.html.
Hartford (CT) Foundation for Public Giving
The Dr. Frank and Florence Marino Scholarship fund awards up to ten renewable $1,000 to $2,000 scholarships to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year medical school students who attended Connecticut public and/or parochial schools for at least eight years and graduated from one of those high schools.
Requirements include a scholarship application form, an up-to-date resume, a one-page description of your career goals, a letter of good standing from an accredited medical school, the names and dates of attended schools from elementary through college, your current financial aid award letter and your parents' current occupation, employer and number of years at that job.
Deadline: each year mid-May.
Visit http://www.hfpgscholarships.org/Scholarship/Search/ViewScholarship/tabid/346/Default.aspx?xfer=275 for information about this scholarship.
Visit http://www.hfpgscholarships.org/Scholarship/Search/ViewScholarship/tabid/346/Default.aspx?xfer=73 to search for other scholarships for Connecticut residents.
Hispanic Scholarship Fund
The HSF offers scholarships of $1,000 to $5,000 to full-time graduate students of Hispanic heritage who are citizens or legal permanent residents of the US.
Applicants must be pursuing their first graduate degree and must complete the FAFSA.
Deadline: December 15th each year.
For details and the online application visit: http://www.hsf.net/innercontent.aspx?id=460
Ida Foreman Fleisher Fund (Jewish women)
Scholarships range from $2,000 to $8,000 to assist women, preferably Jewish, to obtain professional educations. Source - Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia.
Application requirements - three copies of each
1)Ida Foreman Fleisher application, 2)Personal Mission Statement, 3)FAFSA,
4)Recent transcripts and 5)Letter of recommendation (one original and 2 copies).
For Jewish men and women: The Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia also offers interest-free loans (Albert Strickler Memorial Fund and Samual and Sara Feinman Fund) for up to $5,000 for medical students, preferably Jewish, and one loan fund (Feinman) is for students from Greater Philadelphia.
Deadline: Each year in mid-May.
Applications are available at http://www.jewishphilly.org/page.aspx?id=124638.
Indian Health Services Scholarship (IHS)
The IHS offers full tuition and a monthly stipend in return for one year of full-time service for each year of scholarship support (minimum 2 years).
Applicants must be US citizens and members of federally recognized American Indian or Alaska Native tribes, bands or communities accepted by or enrolled in medical school in a priority career category.
Requirements include a scholarship application form, two faculty recommendations, documentation of American Indian/Alaska Native eligibility, official transcript and proof of acceptance/enrollment into a specific health category.
Deadline: New applicants - late March each year. Continuation Students - late February.
For details, including this year's priority category list, visit http://www.scholarship.ihs.gov/.
Each year, Indicorps selects young professionals of Indian origin for one and two year service fellowships with grassroots service organizations in India. Health Services is an area included.
The Indicorps fellowship stipend covers room, board, and fellowship-related travel. Indicorps' involvement is generally in-kind only, however, may include a minimal cash stipend to meet fellowship requirements and local transportation needs. Fellows will be required to provide for their own travel to and from India as well as any other incidental expenses.
To be eligible for the fellowship program, you must be a person of Indian origin (Government of India definition) and have at minimum a university degree or five years work experience. Individuals apply specifically to projects of their interest.
Deadline: January 1 each year.
For more information and the application information visit http://www.indicorps.org/.
Japanese Medical Society of America (JMSA)
The JMSA offers scholarships from $2,500 to $20,000 to applicants interested in achieving JMSA goals including proposing a project that will benefit the JMSA and the Japanese community.
In addition to the scholarship application form, candidates must submit a medical school transcript, at least one letter of recommendation and a brief personal statement in essay form.
Deadline: December 31 each year.
Korean American Medical Association
KAMA offers scholarships of at least $1,000 for basic clinical research or community outreach.
Applicants must 1)be members of KAMA, 2)be in M1, M2 or M3 and 3)submit a CV, SOM transcript, two letters of recommendation and the online application. Receipents of KAMA awards must attend a dinner in NYC and give a presentation about their experience. All travel costs are paid.
Although KAMA encourages all med students to apply, their stated goal is to "assist and support medical students of Korean heritage".
Deadline: July 1 each year.
Visit http://www.kamaus.org/info/index.php/medical-students/80-scholarship-program for more information and the online application.
Korean American Scholarship Foundation
The KASF offers scholarships to full-time students with financial need and GPAs of 3.0 or higher. Koreans (international students) and Korean-Americans may apply.
The KASF has divided the US into 6 districts. Application requirements depend upon in which district your university is located. General requirements include a lengthy application form, an official transcript, two letters of recommendation, a recent photo and a one-page essay. Some districts require the FAFSA or copies of parents' tax returns.
Deadlines: Districts have differing deadlines mostly from May to July each year.
Visit http://www.kasf.org/application_set.html for more information and the application form.
The Howard Lapsley Memorial Scholarship Fund for Medical Education (New Jersey)
Scholarship funds are awarded towards tuition and in some cases towards room and board, travel, meals, books and supplies.
Candidates must have attended or been eligible to attend NJ public schools in Union, Somerset or Middlesex counties. Temporary residence in these counties does not qualify.
Application requirements include a paper application, college grade transcripts, four references (two academic), the Graduate Professional School Financial Aid Service (GPFAS) statement and a 100 word essay about your medical career goals. If a personal interview with the Board of the Muhlenberg is required, you must attend.
Recipients may reapply for each year of medical school.
For more information visit http://jfkmc.org/pdf/LapsleyScholarship_Brochure.pdf.
Find the application at http://www.jfkmc.org/pdf/Lapsley_Application.pdf
Deadline: May 1 each year.
Mid-Tidewater Medical Society
The MTMS offers a $500 renewable scholarship to a student attending medical school in VA who is from Essex, Gloucester, King and Queen , King William, Mathews or Middlesex counties or the town of West Point, VA.
Proof of residency (driver's license, bill, etc.) must accompany the one-page application.
For more information email email@example.com.
For the application, see Dennis
Deadline: the fall.
National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Scholarship
In return for a commitment to: specialize in primary care (family medicine, general pediatrics, general internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology or general psychiatry), serve a primary care residency and serve one year for each year of scholarship support (two-year minimum) at an approved Health Professional Shortage Area, the NHSC will pay all education costs and provide a monthly taxable living stipend. The NHSC also pays for travel to and from Professional Shortage Area sites for job interviews.
Eligible health care facilities include Federally-supported health centers, rural health clinics, Indian Health Service clinics, public health care clinics, hospital-affiliated primary care practices, managed care networks, prisons and US Immigration, Customs & Enforcement sites.
Service areas are in all states plus D.C, American Samoa, Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Repbulic of Palau and the US Virgin Islands.
Application requirements include the online form, proof of US Citizenship, transcripts, a resume detailing work and volunteer experiences, essays and verification and evaluation from your school.
Deadline: early May each year.
For more information and the application visit NHSC Website.
To view current Professional Shortage Areas visit http://nhscjobs.hrsa.gov/.
National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Loan Repayment
In return for two years of service in a Health Professional Shortage Area, the NHSC provides $50,000 (or the medical school graduate's entire debt if less) tax fee to primary case physicians.
After two years, participants may be eligible to apply for additional support for extended service.
Deadline: each year late July.
For more information visit http://nhsc.hrsa.gov/loanrepayment/.
For typical service facilities and service areas read the two corresponding paragraphs under NHSC Scholarship. To view current Professional Shortage Areas visit http://nhscjobs.hrsa.gov/.
For the application visit http://nhsc.hrsa.gov/loanrepayment/apply.htm.
To read the VA Community Healthcare Association's NHSC newsletter click here.
National Institutes of Health
The NIH offers loan repayment plans for up to $35,000 each year for two-year programs of nonprofit biomedical or behavioral research in five areas - clinical, pediatric, health disparities, contraception/infertility and clinical research for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds.
The program also offers tax offsets and the possibility of renewing the program after two years.
Applicants must be citizens or permanent residents of the US with doctoral-level degrees willing to devote 20 or more hours per week to research.
Deadline: mid-November each year.
For more information visit www.lrp.nih.gov or call 866-849-4047.
National Italian American Foundation
NIAF Scholarships range from $2,000 to $12,000 for Italian Americans who demonstrate outstanding potential and high academic achievement in their area of study.
Applicants must be citizens or permanent residents of the US with at least one ancestor who immigrated from Italy and be enrolled in an accredited US college/university with a 3.5 GPA.
Application requiremens include the completed application, a teacher evaluation form, an official grade transcript and, if you wish, the FAFSA.
Online applications become available in November and the application deadline is in early March.
For further information and the link to the application visit: http://www.niaf.org/Scholarships/ForStudents.asp.
National Medical Fellowships
NMF offers scholarships, awards and fellowship programs to United States citizens from groups currently underrepresented in the medical profession; specifically, African-Americans, Alaska Natives, Hispanic/Latinos, Native Hawaiians, Native Americans, Vietnamese, Cambodians, and mainland Puerto Ricans who permanently reside within the 50 U.S states.
For information about these programs visit http://www.nmfonline.org/pages/programs---landing
Herbert W. Nickens Medical Student
The five $5,000 AAMC awards are for those entering their third year of medical school.
Nominees must be citizens or permanent residents of the US who have shown leadership in efforts to eliminate inequities in medical education and health care.
Eight sets of application materials must include a letters of recommendation from the dean's designate, the SOM diversity affairs officer, and a faculty member, a personal statement by the nominee and a curriculum vitae. All letters must be double-spaced with 1" margins and size 12 Times New Roman font.
Deadline: early May each year
The Herbert W. Nickens Award
This AAMC $10,000 award is for outstanding contributions that promote justice in medical education and health equities for people in this country.
The recipient will present the Nickens Lecture and lead a discussion session at the AAMC Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado in November.
Eight sets of application materials must include a letter of nomination which includes testimonials that support the nominees efforts to promote social justice in medical education and health care and a curriculum vitae. The letter of recommendation must be double-spaced with 1" margins and size 12 Times New Roman font.
Deadline: early May each year.
For more information on both Nickens awards visit: https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/awards/nickens-student/
Contact Financial Aid if you are interested in being nominated for either award.
The Foundation of the Pennsylvania Medical Society
The Lehigh County Medical Auxiliary's Scholarship and Education Fund offers one $2,500 scholarship for a full-time medical student from that county.
The Lycoming County Medical Society offers multiple $2,500 scholarships for full-time medical students from that county.
The Montgomery County Medical Society offers a $1,000 scholarship to a first year medical student from that county.
The Myrtle Siegfried and Michael Vigilante MD Scholarship Fund offers a $1,000 scholarship to a first year medical student from Berks, Lehigh or Northampton county.
Deadline: September 30 each year.
For more information and an application visit http://www.foundationpamedsoc.org/ then select Student Financial Services and then Scholarships from the drop-down menu or contact the foundation at firstname.lastname@example.org or telephone 717-558-7852.
The Pisacano Scholars Leadership Program
Dr. Nicholas J. Pisacano established this foundation to provide educational programs, leadership training and funding for medical students committed to family medicine.
The maximum scholarship award is $28,000, which will be distributed during the fourth year of medical school and three years of residency.
Financial need is not a consideration.
Applicants must be (1)entering their fourth year in the fall of the calendar year (2)at a U.S. medical school (3)with family medicine as their specialty.
Application requirements include the application form, three letters of recommendation (SOM Dean, a Primary Care faculty member and a family physician not connected to your SOM), transcripts (undergrad, grad, SOM), copies of your MCAT and USMLE scores and an essay explaining your personal goals.
Deadline: March 1 each year.
For more information and an application http://www.pisacano.org/.
Ruth Jackson-Steindler Orthopaedic Clerkship
One or two outstanding med students who have completed M3 are invited to participate in the clinical services at the University of Iowa Dept. of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation involving educational programs and conferences, surgical skills education and research conferences.
The award provides support for housing and travel.
Application requirements include the PDF application, med school transcripts, letters of recommendation from the SOM dean and a faculty member, a current resume including research experience and copies of any published material and a personal statement.
Deadline: late March each year.
Details, including the PDF application form, course descriptions and dates of participation, are at http://www.uiortho.com/index.php/education/ruth-jackson-steindler-orthopaedic-clerkship.html
Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation
This foundations offers a year of research in a wide variety of cardiovascular fields at a medical school other than the one in which the medical student is enrolled, although exceptions are made.
Second- and third-year medical students are encouraged to apply, and fourth-years who have negotiated a graduation deferment may apply. Applicants who are not US citizens must maintain an appropriate visa. MD/PHD students are not eligible. Prior research experience is not required.
Benefits include a $28,500 stipend, up to $7,000 for associated costs, financial support to attend meetings related to cardiovascular medicine and funds for travel to present research papers.
Application requirements include a completed application form, a three-page essay, a one-page personal statement, a medical school transcript, three letters of recommendation and any other materials that would enhance the application package.
Deadline: early January each year.
For further information visit www.SarnoffFoundation.org.
The Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans
Thirty grants of $20,000 plus $16,000 for tuition are offered for graduate study in the US for one or two years for students who are undergraduate fourth-years or enrolled in M1 or M2.
Applicants must be resident aliens (holding a Green Card), naturalized US citizens or native-born US citizens with both parents being naturalized US citizens. Applicants loyal to both countries should regard the US as their principal residence and national identity.
Application requirements include an online application form, documentation of "New American" status, two essays, a brief resume, three letters of recommendation, enrollment verification, undergraduate and graduate school transcripts, and MCAT scores for entering medical students.
Deadline: each year November 1.
For further information visit http://www.pdsoros.org/forms/fullapp.pdf.
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital's Pediatric Oncology Education Program
Medical students do nine weeks of clinical oncology research in a wide variety of medical fields involving chart review, record screening and examination and data collection and entry. Participants may attend clinics, observe procedures, perform computer research data processing and analysis, MR image analysis and radiation therapy treatment planning. The primary goal of this summer program is to encourage students to pursue a career in cancer research either as a laboratory-based scientist or physician scientist.
Applicants must be US citizens or non-citizen nationals or possess a permanent resident visa and have and undergraduate GPA of at least 3.4 on a 4 scale.
Participants will receive a $4,000 stipend and free housing in Memphis, Tennessee.
Application requirements include an online application form, dean's letter of recommendation, two letters of recommendation from faculty members or research mentors and undergraduate and medical school transcripts.
Participants must make a PowerPoint presentation and a written report on their research project.
Deadline: February 1 each year.
For further information visit http://www.stjude.org/poe. For the online application visit:
The Turkish American Doctors Association of Midwest
TADAM offers two $1,000 a year scholarships to medical students with a Turkish-American heritage or ancestry.
In addition to the application form, candidates must submit a letter from the Dean of Students, two letters of recommendation, a personal statement including career goals and a current vitae.
Deadline: December each year.
For more information visit http://www.tadamonline.org/ and select the Scholarship tab. For the scholarship application select Downloan Application Form
Vietnamese American Medical Association (VAMA)
Medical School Scholarships
Five $1,000 scholarships are available to third-year medical students.
Application requirements: 1)VAMA application form, 2)a 600 word essay describing your commitment to serving Vietnamese communities in the US, 3)a medical school transcript, 4)a letter from the financial aid office stating the scholarship and loan amounts you have been awarded. 5)a letter of recommendation from a UVA SOM faculty member and 6)USMLE Step 1 scores.
Deadline: Each year in May.
Memorial Travel Scholarships
Two $2,500 scholarships to attend a rotation in a "third-world" country, preferably Vietnam, during medical school or residency.
Application requirements: 1)VAMA application form, 2)a short essay explaining your goals and the impact of this rotation on your career plan, 3)a itemized budget and 4)a written report submitted within 60 days of the end of the rotation.
If you fail to complete the project, all awarded funds must be returned to the VAMA.
Deadline: Each year late June.
Detailed information and applications are available at http://www.vamausa.org/.
Washington Family Scholars Program
The Pauletta and Denzel Washington Family Gifted Scholars Program in Neuroscience offers one graduate or medical school summer fellowship to work on a research project concerned with blood-brain barrier and drug delivery into the CNS, tumor immunology and cancer vaccine, gene therapy, gene discovery, stem cells and neurodegenerative research or advanced surgical technology resulting in an abstract or scientific paper on the research.
Candidates must be citizens or permanent residents of the US and able to conduct the research at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA. Researchers will receive financial support of $2,500/month during the research period and assistance with some travel costs.
Deadline: early January each year.
For further information visit www.cedars-sinai.edu/washingtonscholars or telephone 310.423.9522 or email email@example.com. To be mailed a application package, contact Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8631 W Third St., Suite 800E, Los Angeles CA 90048.
Worcester (MA) District Medical Society
Scholarships available to legal residents of central Massachusetts at the time of applying to medical school in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of attending an accredited medical or osteopathic school.
Candidates must submit a completed application, a current transcript, two letters of recommendation and an essay on your reason(s) for selecting a career in medicine and why you are deserving of this award.
Deadline: late July each year.
For the list of eligible cities and towns in central Massachusetts and the online application visit http://www.wdms.org/scholarship_fund.htm.
Zelma Gray Scholarship (Ohio)
Zelma Gray Scholarships provide funds for tuition, lab fee and text book costs to medical students who are permanent or current residents of Guernsey County, Ohio, who graduated from a Guernsey County high school and who have a parent who lives in that county.
Application requirements include the application form, college grade transcripts, MCAT scores and a copy of the applicant's FAFSA.
Deadline: March 31 each year.
The application is available at http://www.appalachianohio.org/upload_files/files/Zelma%20Gray%20Medical%20School%20Scholarship%20Application.pdf.